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Topics related to security of the Internet, Devices, Networks, and Communication

Cybersecurity Tips for Travelers

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Cybersecurity risks during travel are usually higher than while your are at home or at your work. This post provides a number of cybersecurity tips for travelers. If you are traveling  international, you need to be extra careful and prepare accordingly. Three steps you ought to take are: Security measures before, during and after your trip. Also, you must protect the device physically; you must connect to the Internet carefully; and you must have software protection.  First, let us consider what cybersecurity measures you should take before you start your trip.

cybersecurity tips for travelers
Secure your device, protect your data, avoid public WiFi and networks for cybersecurity while you are traveling.

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11 Cybersafety Tips for Online Safety

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Our life is integrated with cyberspace. Cyberspace use becoming as normal as breathing air. But there is a BIG difference between the air we breathe and cyberspace we use. When we breathe foul air, we know from its smell that something is not right. Unfortunately, danger signs in the cyberspace are not as obvious to us as the foul smell of air. Hence, we need to stay alert to avoid safety hazards larking in the cyberspace. Cybersafety rules must be observed to stay safe in the cyberspace, because predators are relentlessly trying to find ways to steal our money and our personally sensitive information. Below are 11 top tips for online safety.

Cybesapce is infested with hazards and to protect from attacts one must follow rules for cybersafety aks online safety.
Alice has strong cybersafety; she is staying guarded against attracts coming from the Internet. She has strong online safety.

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Teen Online-Safety Tips for Cybersafety

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For cybersecurity, teen online-safety rules ought to match with their Internet use profiles. The rules presented below are in addition to 11 tips I have in another post. Keeping an adult in the loop is a very important item in the list of online-safety tips for cybersafety. This not because teens cannot be trusted, but it is for their guidance.  Supervising adults should make it clear  to the teens they are supervising that they are not a gatekeeper, but a mature friend for to help teir development. For examples, some personal information posted online may have longterm implication, but it may not be obvious to a teen.

Cybersafety Rules for Teen Online-Safety
Teen Online-Safety Tips for Cybersafety

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Beware of IRS/Tax Scams, Phishing and Malware

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Every New year starts with joys and hope. We hope to get new things. And think about money we will need for them. One source of money is tax refund. Most of us get some EXTRA cash from refund! With that hope of getting refund, we gather all necessary documents for filing tax return.  These documents come from  employer, banks, mutual funds, and so on. They have our PII (personally identifiable information) and PSI (sensitive financial information). Those who are there for IRS/Tax scams, they want them too.

IRS/Tax Scam artists are active in the cyberspace

Guess, in the New Year, who are more active  than us! Malicious cyber-criminals, who are creating tax scams with phishing  methods that have sophisticated and intricate social engineering techniques. They want to steal PII and PSI for getting money from us. They will use phishing, malwares, spyware, keylogger and many other creative tools. The big question to ask: Is my cybersecurity fences are up-to-date for protecting me from phishing, malwares, spyware, and  keylogger so that malicious actors cannot get my PII and PSI?


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IRS/Tax scams are common in cyberspace.

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Cybersecurity for Users of Cyberspace Q&A


The purpose of this post is to provide fast answers to a reader who has one or few specific questions on Cybersecurity. You can quickly browse through the post until you got answer to your question. If your question is not included here, please post your question in the comment section and I will answer it.

Cybersecurity is a very complex problem. Any discussion on it requires use of some technical term, especially types of malwares. I have tried to minimize the use of technical terms. But it you are not familiar with various types of malware you want to read ‘Malwares: an Overview‘. That will not only make your reading this section easier, it also will expand your knowledge of malwares.

What is Cybesecurity?

Cybersecurity is security in cyberspace, including, but not limited to, security of (a) systems that make cyberspace, (b) systems that provide services to the users of cyberspace, (c) devices that are part of cyberspace, (d) devices that cyber-travelers (cyberspace users) use to get services from cyberspace, and (e) information of stored and streaming through cyber-highway.

From the answer above, cybersecurity seems to be a very complex problem. How such a complex problem can be to dealt with?

Cybersecurity is really a very complex problem. To solve this complex problem, it is divided into many smaller problems. Then, each smaller problem is addressed individually.

What are the smaller cybersecurity problems?

A four layer-architecture model of cyberspace divides it into (a) User layer, (b) App or application-layer software, (c) system software, and (d) physical layer. Then, security problems at each of these layers is addressed one at a time. For example, security of a device consists of  physical security, firmware security, and software security problems; each of these security problems is considered as separately, and it is addressed individually.

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Cyberspace Q&A

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Cybersecurity is the security in the cyberspace. While cyberspace lives in the Internet, cyberspace is not the Internet. The Internet provides a framework for creating cyberspaces. In this post introduce cyberspace in a question-and-answer format.

Is it `Cybersecurity’ or `Cyber Security’?

NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) calls it Cybersecurity.

What is Cyberspace?

First the term was coined by two artists in the 1960s for a series of their art work, but now there are two conceptual views in the age of information.
Answer A: An imaginary view: It is the space that people use to stay virtually-connected with other people or services.  Also, services can stay in touch with other services. Moreover, services can communicate with people and vice verse.  Furthermore, service providers can track people.
Answer B: A technical view: It consists of computer-networks created with a combination of hardware, firmware, and software along with end-user devices. All communication goes through these networks. An end-user connects with people or services connected to the networks. Sometimes we call it the Internet.

What are the hardware that necessary to create the Internet?

A set of host computers working as a gateway to connect end-user devices. A set of routers, and a set of links. The links are used to connect the hosts, routers, and end-users. The links could be wire links, optical links, or radio links depending on the devices’ interfaces. A device may have interfaces for one or more link-types. For example, a WiFi router at home has wire and radio links.

What is firmware?

A firmware is a low-level program stored in a semi-permanent memory that assists hardware and software to communicate between them. By changing firmware nature and functions of hardware components can be changed. Keep Reading

Cybersecurity: An Overview

Do cybersecurity concern you? I am sure it does. Actually, it should be a concern to all of us, because most aspects of our life — information and assets — are now intricately intertwined with cyberspace. They are available from cyberspace, even if you are not a direct cyberspace user. The security issues in the cyberspace are topics of cybersecurity.

Before I discuss cybersecurity, let us see how we address our safety and security in our daily life. Every civil society has laws, law enforcement departments, and judicial system. But citizens keep their houses and cars locked, and their valuables in safe places. Our behavior in the cyberspace should resemble to what we do in our physical space, but unfortunately most of don’t. That is because we, I mean everyone of us, do not know and understand enough about cyberspace and, hence, the cybersecurity risks there. Yes, cybersecurity professionals know much more than common people, but cyberspace is an evolving world and new security issues are exposed by hackers and malicious actors. Let us now return to our topic, cybersecurity.



Let us look at the diagram  for a simplified pictorial view. The six blocks shown within security perimeter requires cybersecurity measures. Namely, they are:

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